Open Access

Ultracentrifugation studies of the location of the site involved in the interaction of pig heart lactate dehydrogenase with acidic phospholipids at low pH. A comparison with the muscle form of the enzyme

  • Grzegorz Terlecki1Email author,
  • Elżbieta Czapińska1 and
  • Katarzyna Hotowy1
Cellular & Molecular Biology LettersAn International Journal200712:10

DOI: 10.2478/s11658-007-0010-5

Received: 13 October 2006

Accepted: 5 January 2007

Published: 5 March 2007


Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from the pig heart interacts with liposomes made of acidic phospholipids most effectively at low pH, close to the isoelectric point of the protein (pH = 5.5). This binding is not observed at neutral pH or high ionic strength. LDH-liposome complex formation requires an absence of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides and adenine nucleotides in the interaction environment. Their presence limits the interaction of LDH with liposomes in a concentration-dependent manner. This phenomenon is not observed for pig skeletal muscle LDH. The heart LDH-liposome complexes formed in the absence of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides and adenine nucleotides are stable after the addition of these substances even in millimolar concentrations. The LDH substrates and studied nucleotides that inhibit the interaction of pig heart LDH with acidic liposomes can be ordered according to their effectiveness as follows: NADH > NAD > ATP = ADP > AMP > pyruvate. The phosphorylated form of NAD (NADP), nonadenine nucleotides (GTP, CTP, UTP) and lactate are ineffective. Chemically cross-linked pig heart LDH, with a tetrameric structure stable at low pH, behaves analogously to the unmodified enzyme, which excludes the participation of the interfacing parts of subunits in the interaction with acidic phospholipids. The presented results indicate that in lowered pH conditions, the NADH-cofactor binding site of pig heart LDH is strongly involved in the interaction of the enzyme with acidic phospholipids. The contribution of the ATP/ADP binding site to this process can also be considered. In the case of pig skeletal muscle LDH, neither the cofactor binding site nor the subunit interfacing areas seem to be involved in the interaction.


Lipid-protein interaction Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes Acidic phospholipids Cardiolipin Phosphatidylserine