Open Access

Oral cyclosporine A - the current picture of its liposomal and other delivery systems

Cellular & Molecular Biology LettersAn International Journal200814:41

DOI: 10.2478/s11658-008-0041-6

Received: 16 May 2008

Accepted: 28 July 2008

Published: 12 November 2008


The discovery of cyclosporine A was a milestone in organ transplantation and the treatment of autoimmune diseases. However, developing an efficient oral delivery system for this drug is complicated by its poor biopharmaceutical characteristics (low solubility and permeability) and the need to carefully monitor its levels in the blood. Current research is exploring various approaches, including those based on emulsions, microspheres, nanoparticles, and liposomes. Although progress has been made, none of the formulations is flawless. This review is a brief description of the main pharmaceutical systems and devices that have been described for the oral delivery of cyclosporine A in the context of the physicochemical properties of the drug and the character of its interactions with lipid membranes.

Key words

Cyclosporine A Physicochemical properties Oral drug delivery Liposomes Nanoparticles