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Table 3 Genes overexpressed in different crops for higher phosphorus use efficiency

From: Regulation of phosphorus uptake and utilization: transitioning from current knowledge to practical strategies

Gene Major functions References
Proton-pyrophosphatase gene AVP1/AVP1D (AVP1DOX) Enhances phosphorus acquisition, root branching and overall mass in Arabidopsis, rice, and tomato [109111]
GmACP1 Overexpression in soybean hairy roots increase phosphorus efficiency by 11–20 % [112]
ZmPTF1 Improves low phosphorus tolerance in maize by regulating carbon metabolism and root growth [104]
OsPTF1 Results in a 30 % increase in the phosphorus content in transgenic plants [100]
OsPht1-8 Involved in phosphorus allocation and remobilization [29]
AtPHR1, OsPHR1, OsPHR2 Enhance the expression of different phosphorus transporters and increases shoot phosphorus concentration [105, 106, 113]
OsPT1, OsPT6 Increase phosphorus acquisition and shoot phosphorus accumulation [114, 115]
LaGPX-PDE1, LaGPX-PDE2 Regulate root hair development and enhance glycerophosphodiester turnover [116]
AtPHO1, AtPHO1-H1, AtPHO1-H10 Increase phosphorus acquisition during phosphorus starvation [117]
GmEXPB2 Increases phosphorus acquisition by enhancing lateral root elongation [118]
AtPAP15 Enhances intracellular APase activity in the leaves and increases phosphorus use efficiency and yield [59]
PvPS2-2 Increases phosphorus acquisition efficiency by increasing root dry weight, root hair numbers and total phosphorus content in root hairs [119]
LASAP2, OsPAP10a (NC_008394.4) Increase dry matter production and phosphorus accumulation under phosphorus-deficient conditions [120]
TIR1 Stimulates lateral root formation upon phosphorus starvation [121]
AtAVP1OX, LeAVP1D-1, LeAVP1D-2 Increase the density of root hairs during phosphorus starvation [65]
At2g01060 Increases shoot phosphorus accumulation irrespective of phosphorus supplies [122]