Skip to main content
Fig. 1 | Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters

Fig. 1

From: Crosstalk between the Warburg effect, redox regulation and autophagy induction in tumourigenesis

Fig. 1

Benefits of tumourigenic metabolism. Tumourigenic metabolism is characterised by the Warburg effect with high ATP and lactate quantities produced in aerobic glycolysis. Furthermore, increased glycolysis and glutaminolysis are present in tumourigenic cells by means of increased expression of glucose and amino acid transporters resulting in increased production of ATP. Lactate production generates an acidic and hypoxic microenvironment which promotes tumourigenesis, invasion and metastasis. The hypoxic microenvironment results in autophagy induction via increased ROS production and subsequent JNK activation. Furthermore, hypoxia also induces expression of HIF-1α, which leads to inhibition of mTOR. In addition, PI3K/Akt signaling also results in inhibition of mTOR. The inhibition of mTOR results in subsequent autophagy induction. Images were created using Microsoft Word 2010 software

Back to article page