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Fig. 1 | Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters

Fig. 1

From: Role of angiotensin-converting enzyme in myeloid cell immune responses

Fig. 1

ACE upregulation enhances myeloid cell immune responses. In physiological conditions, ACE expression increased during the differentiation and functional maturation of myeloid-derived cells. Upon immune challenge, the expression of ACE further increased in activated myeloid cells facilitated the optimal immune responses of these cells. Upregulation of ACE in myeloid cells (eg. NeuACE neutrophils and ACE10/10 macrophages) strongly enhanced immune responses of these cells, beyond the normal capacity of WT cells. In neutrophils, ACE upregulation induced oxidative bactericidal response, which is due the upregulation of NADPH oxidase activity. In macrophages, ACE upregulation enhanced M1 activation of macrophages due to the increased activation of NF-kB, STAT1 and TNFα, which in turn gives a strong anti-bacterial and anti-tumor phenotype. In APCs (DCs and macrophages), ACE trims the peptide repertoire before they are bound to MHC class I complex and displayed by cells, which activates T cell – adaptive immune response and humoral immune response

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