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Table 1 The summary of some of published studies presenting data on LDH as a potential diagnostic, prognostic and predictive marker for cancers

From: The usefulness of lactate dehydrogenase measurements in current oncological practice

CANCER TYPE DIAGNOSTIC MARKER PROGNOSTIC MARKER PREDICTIVE MARKER
Urinary tract cancers: bladder cancer, Wilms’ tumor ↑ total LDH activity and ↑ LD5 level in urine [23, 54] ↑ LDHi levels in urine [58] ↑ total LDH activity in serum [58, 59]
Breast cancers: triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) ↑ cathodic LDHi [60] ↑ total LDH activity in serum [61] ↑ total LDH activity in serum [62, 63]
Germ cell cancers: testicular cancer, ovarian cancer ↑ LD1 level and ↑ cathodic LDHi levels in serum [21, 23, 58]   ↑ total LDH activity in serum [58, 64, 65]
Gastrointestinal tract cancers: colorectal cancer (CRC), gastric cancer (GC), pancreatic cancers (PC), esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ↑ LD5 level in serum and ↑ LDHA/LDHB ratio [58, 66] ↑ total LDH activity in serum and ↑ cathodic LDHi [66,67,68,69,70] ↑ cathodic LDHi levels and ↑ total LDH activity in serum [58, 69,70,71]
Lung cancers: small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), epidermal growth factor receptor mutation-positive non-small cell lung cancer, Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) ↑ LD5 level in cancer tissue and ↑ cathodic LDHi in serum, and pleural fluid [20, 58, 72] ↑ total LDH activity in serum and ↑ plasma LDH activity [58, 73, 74], ↑ total LDH activity in serum [73, 75,76,77,78]
Prostate cancer (PC)   ↑ total LDH activity in serum [79] ↑ total LDH activity in serum [58]
Brain cancer ↑ total LDH activity in cerebral cyst fluids [80]   
Oral cancers: oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC)   ↑ total LDH activity in serum [81] ↑ LDB expression in tumor tissue [82]
Blood cancers: Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL), non- Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL), Burkitt’s lymphoma, Chronic granulocytic leukemia (CGL) ↑ total LDH activity and ↑ LD3 level in serum [54] ↑ total LDH activity in serum [23, 54, 58]  
Ewing’s sarcoma   LDHA expression in tumor tissue [23, 83]  
Malignant teratoma ↑ LD1 level in serum [84]