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Table 1 Incidence and risk factors for burn-induced HO (BIHO) reported in large scale burn centers within the past decade

From: Burn-induced heterotopic ossification from incidence to therapy: key signaling pathways underlying ectopic bone formation

Reference Dataset of the study Total simple size Number of patients with BIHO Incidence of BIHO (%) Age of patients with BIHO (years) Male (%) of patients with BIHO Burn %TBSA Location with frequency of BIHO Time to incidence of BIHO Factors associated with BIHO
Levi et al. [21] Six burn centers in America 2797 98 3.5 41.25 81 (83.0) 47 NA NA 1. Arm burns requiring skin grafts (OR = 96.4a)
2. Burn greater than 30% TBSA (OR = 11.5a)
3. Number of trips to operating room (OR = 1.32a)
4. Number of days on ventilator (OR = 1.034a)
Thefenne et al. [23] Single burn center in France 805 32 4.0 47 20 (62.5) 48.5 Elbow (50%)Shoulder (20.3%)Hip (17.6%) Knee (10.8%) Wrist (1.3%) NA 1. Use of fluidized bed (OR = 39.6a)
2. Curare use (OR = 24.1a)
3. Pulmonary infection (OR = 21.5a)
4. Cutaneous infection (OR = 7.5a)
5. Length of stay in the burns ICU (OR = 1.1a)
6. Mean total burn area (OR = 1.1a)
7. Mean depth of burns (OR = 1.1a)
Orchard et al. [24] Single burn center in Australia 337 19 5.6 43 16 (84.2) 46 Elbow (89%) Knee and shoulder (less common). Clinical: 37 (30–40) days Radiological: 49 (38–118) days 1. A greater % TBSA
2. Inhalation injury
3. Use of mechanical ventilation
4. Number of surgical procedures
5. Sepsis
6. Longer time to active movement (OR = 1.48a)
  1. Age (years) of patients with BIHO was shown by median; burn % TBSA was shown by mean or median
  2. NA not available
  3. aIndependent risk factors for BIHO that are statistically significant in multivariate analysis