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Table 1 Effect of thymoquinone (TQ) on the function of different miRNAs in the course of cancer therapy

From: Targeting microRNAs with thymoquinone: a new approach for cancer therapy

Cancer type Cell lines Animal model TQ dosage miRNA type Effect on miRNA Mechanism of action of thymoquinone References
Pancreatic cancer PANC-1
MIA PaCa-2
In vitro: 6.25 μM miR-24–1
Up-regulation Cleavage of procaspase3, PARP, increased PKM2 expression [105]
Breast cancer MDA-MB-231
Mouse In vivo: 3 μg/mL miR-361 Up-regulation Down-regulated Rac1, RhoA and VEGF-A, inhibit both metastasis and angiogenesis [106]
Lung cancer - Mouse In vivo: 10 mg/kg miR-206 Down-regulation Reduction of oxidative stress and necrosis formation, regeneration of the liver tissue [110]
Breast cancer MCF-7 cells Mouse   miR-34a Up-regulation Up-regulation of p53, down-regulation of Rac1,
Metastasis inhibition
Breast cancer BT-549 In vitro: 5 μM miR-34a Up-regulation Decreased levels of EMT-TFs including Twist and Snail, ZEB and NOTCH, control metastasis through down-regulation of EMT [83]
Leukemia MV4-11 and Kasumi-1 Mouse In vitro: 10 μM
In vivo: 15 mg/kg
miR-29b Up-regulation Dysfunction of DNA methyltransferases, dissociation of Sp1/NF-κB complex, induces apoptosis through activation of caspase-3 and caspase-8 [66]
Breast cancer MDA-MB-231
Mouse In vitro: 15 μM
In vivo: 100 mg/kg
miR-34a Up-regulation Suppressing NF-κB
and eEF-2 K pathway
Liver cancer HepG2, Huh7 In vitro: 10 μM miR-16 and miR-375 Up-regulation Up-regulated caspase-3, down-regulated Bcl-2 [114]
Lung cancer A549 Mouse In vitro: 5 μM
In vivo: 5 mg/kg
miR-16 and miR-375 Up-regulation Up-regulation of p53 and Bax, down-regulation of Bcl2, pro-caspase-3 and pro-caspase-9, induce apoptosis [26]