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Table 2 Some mechanisms used by bacterial antisense RNAs [16]

From: Natural antisense RNAs as mRNA regulatory elements in bacteria: a review on function and applications

Antisense/target Organism Mechanism Description Needs Hfq
MicA/ompA Escherichia coli Direct (TIR) inhibition of translation Trans-encoded; entails RNase E-dependent mRNA decay Yes
SgrS/ptsG E. coli Direct (TIR) inhibition of translation Trans-encoded; SgrS also encoded o protein Yes
CopA/CopT E. coli R1-type plasmids Inhibition of translation Cis-encoded; involves translational coupling No
IstR1/tisB E. coli Inhibition of translation Trans-encoded; binding upstream of TIR inhibits standby ribosomes No
RNAIII/sa1000 Staphylococcus aureus Inhibition of translational initiation and induced RNase III cleavage Trans-encoded; full inhibition requires both translation block and endocleavage; also contain open reading frame No
DsrA/rpoS E. coli Activation of RpoS translation Trans-encoded; binding upstream of TIR Yes
RNAIII/repR Streptococci plasmid plP501 Riboswitch-like induction of premature transcription termination Cis-encoded ?
GadY/gadXY E. coli Induced cleavage, stabilization of gadX mRNA Cis-encoded between gadX and gadY Yes
OOP/cll E. coli Lambda phage Induced RNase III-mediated cleavage near 3’ end Cis-encoded; causes subsequent cll mRNA decay ?
MicC/ompD Salmonella Direct targeting for mRNA decay CDS-internal target; no effect on translational initiation Yes
RNAI/RNAII E. coli ColE1-type plasmids Inhibition of replication primer maturation Cis-encoded; induces RNA folding change No
crRNAs/phage RNA/DNA? Bacteria and archea Mechanism is homology-dependent but unknown CrRNAs processed from precursor RNA; anti-phage immunity ?