Degradation and beyond: Control of androgen receptor activity by the proteasome system
Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters volume 11, pages 109–131 (2006)
The androgen receptor (AR) is a transcription factor belonging to the family of nuclear receptors which mediates the action of androgens in the development of urogenital structures. AR expression is regulated post-translationally by the ubiquitin/proteasome system. This regulation involves more complex mechanisms than typical degradation. The ubiquitin/proteasome system may regulate AR via mechanisms that do not engage in receptor turnover. Given the critical role of AR in sexual development, this complex regulation is especially important. Deregulation of AR signalling may be a causal factor in prostate cancer development. AR is the main target in prostate cancer therapies. Due to the critical role of the ubiquitin/proteasome system in AR regulation, current research suggests that targeting AR degradation is a promising approach.
apoptosis antagonizing factor
- APIS complex:
AAA proteins independent of 20S
AR-associated protein 54
AR-associated protein 70
androgen responsive element
AR N-terminal interacting protein
basic fibroblast growth factor
coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1
C-terminus Hsp70 interacting protein
DNA binding domain
glucocorticoid receptor interacting protein 1
glycogen synthase kinase 3β
histone deacetylase 1
homologous to the E6-AP C-terminus
human embryonal kidney cell line
human hepatoma cell line
heat shock protein 90
insulin-like growth factor 1
lysine (K), leucine (L)
ligand binding domain
lymph node carcinoma of prostate cell line
mitogen activated protein kinase
Murine double minute 2
nuclear receptor corepressor
neural precursor cell-expressed developmentally down-regulated
nuclear localisation signal
human prostate carcinoma cell line
proline (P), glutamic acid (E), serine (S), threonine (T)
protein inhibitor of activated STAT
protein kinase A
protein kinase C
protein arginine methyltransferase 1
proteolysis targeting chimeric molecule
prostate specific antigen
proteasome alpha subunit 7
positive transcription elongation factor b
phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10
really interesting new gene
- RNA Pol II:
RNA polymerase II
- SCF ligase:
silencing mediator of retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptor
small nuclear RING finger
steroid receptor coactivator 1
suppressor of Gal
small ubiquitin-like modifier
mating type switching/sucrose non-fermenting
TATA binding protein
- TFIIB, D, F, H:
general transcription factors
thyroid hormone receptor-associated protein
tumour susceptibility gene 101
ubiquitin activating enzyme
ubiquitin conjugating enzyme
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Jaworski, T. Degradation and beyond: Control of androgen receptor activity by the proteasome system. Cell. Mol. Biol. Lett. 11, 109–131 (2006). https://doi.org/10.2478/s11658-006-0011-9
- Prostate cancer