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The identification of QTLs associated with the in vitro response of rye (Secale cereale L.)


This study was conducted in order to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for the in vitro culture response of winter rye (Secale cereale L.) immature embryos and immature inflorescences. A genetic linkage map comprising 67 SSRs, 9 ISSRs, 13 SAMPLs, 7 RAPDs, 2 SCARs and one EST marker was created based on the analyses of 102 recombinant inbred lines from the cross between lines L318 (which has a good response in tissue cultures) and L9 (which is unable to regenerate plants from somatic tissues and anthers). The map spans 979.2 cM, and the average distance between markers is 9.9 cM. Two characteristics were evaluated: callus induction (CI) and somatic embryogenesis ability (SE). They were expressed as the percentage of immature embryos/inflorescences producing callus (designated ECI/ICI) and the percentage of explants producing somatic embryos (ESE/ISE). All the analysed traits showed continuous variation in the mapping population but a non-normal frequency distribution. We identified nine putative QTLs controlling the tissue culture response of rye, explaining up to 41.6% of the total phenotypic variation: two QTLs for ECI — eci-1, eci-2; 4 for ESE — ece-1, ese-2, ese-3, ese-4; 2 for ICI — ici-1, ici2; and 1 for ISE — ise-1. They were detected on chromosomes 1R, 4R, 5R, 6R and 7R.



callus induction


percentage of immature embryos producing callus


percentage of immature embryos producing embryogenic callus


percentage of immature inflorescences producing callus


percentage of immature inflorescences producing embryogenic callus


genetically directed differential subtraction chain


marker assisted selection


quantitative trait locus


recombinant inbred line


somatic embryogenesis ability


tissue culture response


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Correspondence to Monika Rakoczy-Trojanowska.

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Bolibok, H., Gruszczyńska, A., Hromada-Judycka, A. et al. The identification of QTLs associated with the in vitro response of rye (Secale cereale L.). Cell Mol Biol Lett 12, 523–535 (2007).

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Key words

  • Rye
  • Secale cereale L.
  • Somatic embryogenesis
  • Tissue culture
  • Immature embryos
  • Immature inflorescences
  • Molecular marker
  • QTL
  • Genetic mapping