Skip to main content

Natriuretic peptides in cardiovascular diseases

Abstract

The natriuretic peptide family comprises atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), dendroaspis natriuretic peptide (DNP), and urodilatin. The activities of natriuretic peptides and endothelins are strictly associated with each other. ANP and BNP inhibit endothelin-1 (ET-1) production. ET-1 stimulates natriuretic peptide synthesis. All natriuretic peptides are synthesized from polypeptide precursors. Changes in natriuretic peptides and endothelin release were observed in many cardiovascular diseases: e.g. chronic heart failure, left ventricular dysfunction and coronary artery disease.

Abbreviations

ACTH:

adrenocorticotropic hormone

ANP:

atrial natriuretic peptide

AVP:

arginine vasopressin

BNP:

brain natriuretic peptide

CHF:

chronic heart failure

CNP:

C-type natriuretic peptide

cGMP:

cyclic guanosine monophosphate

DNP:

dendroaspis natriuretic peptide

ET:

endothelin

FGF:

fibroblast growth factor

NO:

nitric oxide

NYHA:

New York Heart Association

PAI:

plasminogen activator inhibitor

PGDF:

platelet derived growth factor

TGF:

transforming growth factor

TIMP:

tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase

TNF:

tumor necrosis factor

References

  1. de Bold, A.J., Borenstein, H.B., Veress, A.T. and Sonnenberg, A. A rapid and potent natriuretic response to intravenous injection of atrial myocardial extracts in rats. Life Sci. 28 (1981) 89–94.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. Kangawa, K. and Matsuo, H. Purification and complete amino acid sequence of alfa-human atrial natriuretic polypeptide (alfa-hANP). Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 118 (1984) 131–139.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Sudoh, T., Kangawa, K., Minamino, N. and Matsuo, H. A new natriuretic peptide in porcine brain. Nature 332 (1988) 78–81.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Yasue, H., Yoshimura, M., Sumida, H., Kikuta, K., Kugiyama, K., Jougasaki, M., Ogawa, H., Okumura, K., Mukoyama, M. and Nakao, K. Localisation and mechanism of secretion of B-type natriuretic peptide in comparison with those of A-type natriuretic peptide in normal subjects and patients with heart failure. Circulation 90 (1994) 195–203.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Barr, C.S., Rhodes, P. and Struthers, A.D. C-type natriuretic peptide. Peptides 17 (1996) 1243–1251.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. de Lemos, J.A., McGuire, D.K. and Drazner, M.H. B-type natriuretic peptide in cardiovascular disease. Lancet 361 (2003) 316–322.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Komatsu, Y., Nakao, K., Suga, S., Ogawa, Y., Mukoyama, M., Arai, H., Shirakami, G., Hosoda, K., Nakagawa, O. and Hama, N. C-type natriuretic peptide in rats and humans. Endocrinology 129 (1991) 1104–1106.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Stein, B.C. and Levin, R.I. Natriuretic peptides: Physiology, therapeutic potential and risk stratification in ischemic heart disease. Am. Heart J. 135 (1998) 914–923.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Schweitz, H., Vigne, P. and Minier, D. A new member of the natriuretic peptide family is present in the venom of green mamba (dendroaspis angusticeps) J. Biol. Chem. 267 (1992) 13928–13932.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Schirger, J.A., Heublein, D.M., Chen, H.H., Lisy, O., Jougasaki, M., Wennberg, P.W. and Burnett, J.C. Jr. Presence of Dendroaspis natriuretic peptide-like immunoreactivity in human plasma and ist increase during human heartbfailure. Mayo Clin. Proc. 74 (1999) 126–130.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Hickey, K.A., Rubanyi, G., Paul, R.J. and Higsmith, R.F. Characterization of a coronary vasoconstrictor produced by cultured endothelial cells. Am. J. Physiol. 248 (1985) C550–C556.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Yanagisawa, M., Kurihara, H., Kimura, S., Tomobe, Y., Kobayashi, M., Mitsui, Y., Yazaki, Y., Goto, K. and Masaki, T. A novel potent vasoconstrictor peptide produced by vascular endothelial cells. Nature 332 (1988) 411–415.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Ogawa, K., Oida, A., Sugimura, H., Kaneko, N., Nogi, N., Hasumi, M., Numao, T., Nagao, I. and Mori, S. Clinical significance of blood brain natriuretic peptide level measurement in the detection of heart disease in untreated outpatients-comparison of electrocardiography, chest radiography and echocardiography. Circ. J. 66 (2002) 122–126.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Cheung, B. and Kumana, C. Natriuretic peptides-relevance in cardiac disease. JAMA 280 (1998) 1983–1984.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. Koskinas, K., Tzellos, T.G., Gougoulias, K., Gougoulias, G., Papakonstantinou, C. and Kouvelas, D. Simvastatin-induced rhabdomyolysis: a case study on clinical-decision making based on the evidence-based medicine approach. Arch. Med. Sci. 3 (2007) 267–271.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Levin, E.R., Gardner, D.G. and Samson, W.K. Natriuretic peptides. N. Engl. J. Med. 339 (1998) 321–328.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. Kalra, P.R., Clague, J.R. and Bolger, A.P. Myocardial production of C-type natriuretic peptide in chronic heart failure. Circulation 107 (2003) 571–573.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. Grabowski, M., Malek, L.A., Karpinski, G, Filipiak, K.J. and Opolski, G. BNP in the differential diagnosis of amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity: a case report and review of the literature. Arch. Med. Sci. 2 (2006) 131–133.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Banach, M., Markuszewski, L., Zasłonka, J., Grzegorczyk, J., Okoński, P. and Jegier, B. The role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Przegl. Epidemiol. 58 (2004) 663–670.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. Piechota, M, Banach, M, Irzmański, R, Piechota-Urbańska, M, Kowalski, J. and Pawlicki, L. NT-proBNP levels correlate with organ failure in septic patients — preliminary report. Postepy Hig. Med. Dosw. (Online) 60 (2006) 632–636.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Brown, A.M., Sease, K.L., Robey, J.L., Shofer, F.S. and Hollander, J.E. The impact of B-type natriuretic peptide in addition to troponin I, creatine kinase-MB, and myoglobin on the risk stratification of emergency department chest pain patients with potential acute coronary syndrome. Ann. Emerg. Med. 49 (2007) 153–163.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. Irzmański, R., Banach, M., Piechota, M., Barylski, M., Serwa-Stępień, E., Cierniewski, C., Jegier, B., Kowalski, J. and Pawlicki, L. BNP concentration in patients with mitral stenosis. Dependence on selected morphological parameters. Arch. Med. Sci. 2 (2006) 159–163.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Brunner-La Rocca, H.P., Kiowski, W., Ramsay, D. and Sütsch, G. Therapeutic benefits of increasing natriuretic peptides levels. Cardiovasc. Res. 51 (2001) 510–520.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. Gutkowska, J., Antunes-Rodrigues, J. and McCann, S.M. Atrial natriuretic peptide in brain and pituitary gland. Physiol. Rev. 77 (1997) 465–515.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. Pidgeon, G.B., Richards, A.M. and Nichols, M.G. Differing metabolism and bioactivity of atrial and brain natriuretic peptide in essential hypertension. Hypertension 27 (1996) 906–913.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. Irzmański, R., Banach, M., Piechota, M., Kowalski, J., Barylski, M., Cierniewski, C. and Pawlicki, L. Atrial, Brain Natriuretic Peptide and Endothelin-1 concentration in patients with idiopathic arterial hypertension. The dependence on the selected morphological parameters. Clin. Exp. Hypertens. 29 (2007) 149–164.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. de Lemos, J.A. and Morrow, D.A. Use of natriuretic peptides in clinical decision-making for patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes. Am. Heart J. 153 (2007) 450–453.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. Kowalski, J., Banach, M., Barylski, M., Irzmanski, R. and Pawlicki, L. Carvedilol modifies antioxidant status of patients with stable angina. Cell. Mol. Biol. Lett. 13 (2008) in press.

  29. Kapoun, A.M., Liang, F., O’Young, G., Damm, D.L., Quon, D., White, R.T., Munson, K., Lam, A., Schreiner, G.F. and Protter, A.A. B-type natriuretic peptide exerts broad functional opposition to transforming growth factorbeta in primary human cardiac fibroblasts: fibrosis, myofibroblast conversion, proliferation, and inflammation. Circ. Res. 94 (2004) 453–461.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  30. Dietz, J.R. Mechanisms of atrial natriuretic peptide secretion from the atrium. Cardiovasc. Res. 68 (2005) 8–17.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  31. McDowell, G., Patterson, C., Maguire, S., Shaw, C., Nicholls, D.P. and Hall, C. Variability of Nt-proANP and C-ANP. Eur. J. Clin. Invest. 32 (2002) 545–548.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  32. Witthaut, R., Busch, C., Fraunberger, P., Walli, A., Seidel, D., Pilz, G., Stuttmann, R., Speichermann, N., Verner, L. and Werdan, K. Plasma atrial natriuretic peptide and brain natriuretic peptide are increased in septic shock: impact of interleukin-6 and sepsis-associated left ventricular dysfunction. Intens. Care Med. 29 (2003) 1696–1702.

    Google Scholar 

  33. Maisel, A.S., Clopton, P., Krishnaswamy, P., Nowak, R.M., McCord, J., Hollander, J.E., Duc, P., Omland, T., Storrow, A.B., Abraham, W.T., Wu, A.H., Steg, G., Westheim, A., Knudsen, C.W., Perez, A., Kazanegra, R., Bhalla, V., Herrmann, H.C., Aumont, M.C. and McCullough, P.A. BNP Multinational Study Investigators. Impact of age, race, and sex on the ability of B-type natriuretic peptide to aid in the emergency diagnosis of heart failure: results from the Breathing Not Properly (BNP) multinational study. Am. Heart J. 147 (2004) 1078–1084.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  34. Clerico, A., Lervasi, G. and Mariani, G. Pathophysiologic relevance of measuring the plasma levels of cardiac natriuretic peptide hormones in humans. Horm. Metab. Res. 31 (1999) 487–498.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  35. Cosin Aguilar, J., Hernandiz Martinez, A., Diez Gil, J.L., Capdevila Carbonell, C., Salvador Sanz, A., Diago Torrent, J.L., Rivera Otero, M., Paya Serrano, R., Bertomeu Martinez, V., Sogorb Garri, F., Jordan Torrent, A., Mainar Latorre, L., Grau Jornet, G., Marti Llinares, S. and Miro Palau, V. Grupo de Estudio de la Disfuncion Ventricular Izquierda en la Comunidad. Value of NTproBNP concentration in an out-of-hospital adult population. Rev. Esp. Cardiol. 56 (2003) 236–244.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  36. Bozkurt, B. and Mann, D.L. Use of Biomarkers in the Management of Heart Failure. Are We There Yet? Circulation 107 (2003) 1231–233.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  37. Irzmanski, R., Barylski, M., Banach, M., Piechota, M., Kowalski, J., Cierniewski, C. and Pawlicki, L. The concentration of atrial and brain natriuretic peptide in patients with idiopathic arterial hypertension. Med. Sci. Monit. 13 (2007) CR449–456.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  38. Rubanyi, G.M. and Polokoff, M.A. Endothelins: molecular biology, biochemistry, pharmacology, physiology, and pathophysiology. Pharmacol. Rev. 46 (1994) 325–415.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  39. Goto, K. Basic and therapeutic relevance of endothelin-mediated regulation. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 24 (2001) 1219–1230.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  40. Benigni, A. and Remuzzi, G. Endothelin antagonists. Lancet 353 (1999) 133–138.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  41. Inoue, A., Yanagisawa, M., Kimura, S. Kasuya, Y., Miyauchi, T., Goto, K. and Masaki, T. The human endothelin family: three structurally and pharmacologically distinct isopeptides predicted by three separate genes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86 (1989) 2863–2867.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  42. Ducancel, F. Endothelin-like peptides. Cell Mol. Life Sci. 62 (2005) 2828–2839.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  43. Kedzierski, R.M. and Yanagisawa, M. Endothelin system: the double-edged sword in health and disease. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 41 (2001) 851–876.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  44. Pawlowska, Z., Jerczynska, H., Szemraj, J., Baranska, P., Swiatkowska, M. and Cierniewski, C.S. Natriuretic peptides reduce plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression in human endothelial cells. Cell Mol. Biol. Lett. 7 (2002) 1153–1157.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  45. Ohmnishi, M, Wada, A, Tsutamoto, T, Sawaki, M., Fujii, M., Matsumoto, T. and Kinoshita, M. Significant role of endothelin-A and endothelin-B receptor sin renal function in congestive heart failure. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 36 (5 Suppl.1) (2000) 44–49.

    Google Scholar 

  46. Wang, J., Chiou, W.J., Gagne, G.D. and Wu-Wong, J.R. Internalization of type-A endothelin receptor. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 36 (5 Suppl.1) (2000) 61–65.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  47. Iglarz, M. and Schiffrin, E.L. Role of endothelin-1 in hypertension. Curr. Hypertens. Rep. 5 (2003) 144–148.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  48. Haynes, W.G., Ferro, C.J., O’Kane, K.P., Somerville, D., Lomax, C.C. and Webb, D.J. Systemic endothelin receptor blocade decreases peripheral vascular resistance and blood pressure in humans. Circulation 93 (1996) 1860–1870.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  49. Irzmański, R., Serwa-Stępień, E., Barylski, M., Banach, M., Kowalski, J. and Pawlicki, L. Endothelial dysfunction in hypertension. The role of natriuretic peptides and endothelin. Kardiol. Pol. 63 (Supl. 2) (2005) 457–461.

    Google Scholar 

  50. Schiffrin, E.L., Intengan, H.D., Thibault, G. and Touyz, R.M. Clinical significance of endothelin in cardiovascular disease. Curr. Opin. Cardiol. 12 (1997) 354–367.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  51. Burrell, K.M., Molenaar, P., Dawson, P.J. and Kauman, A.J. Contractile and arrythmic effect of endothelin receptor agonists in human heart in vitro: blockade with SB 209670. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 292 (2000) 449–459.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  52. Saetrum Opgaard, O., Möller, S., de Vries, R., Edvinsson, L. and Saxena, P.R. Positive inotropic responses mediated by endothelin ET (A) and ET (B) receptors in human myocardial trabecule. Clin. Sci. (Lond.) 99 (2000) 161–168.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  53. Fabris, B., Chen, B., Pupic, V., Perich, R. and Johnston, C.I. Inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in plasma and tissue. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 15 (Suppl. 2) (1990) 56–59.

    Google Scholar 

  54. Weber, KT. Fibrosis, a common pathway to organ failure: angiotensin II and tissue repair. Semin. Nephrol. 17 (1997) 461–464.

    Google Scholar 

  55. Benigni, A., Perico, G. and Remuzzi, G. Endothelin antagonists and renal protection. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 35 (4 Suppl. 2) (2000) 75–79.

    Google Scholar 

  56. Bassenge, E. Endothelial function in different organs. Prog. Cardiovasc. Dis. 39 (1996) 209–228.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  57. Dries, D.L. Relevance of molecular forms of brain natriuretic peptide for natriuretic peptide research. Hypertension 49 (2007) 971–973.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  58. Hama, N., Itoh, H., Shirakami, G., Nakagawa, O., Suga, S., Ogawa, Y., Masuda, I., Nakanishi, K., Yoshimasa, T. and Hashimoto, Y. Rapid ventricular induction of brain natriuretic peptide gene expression in experimental acute myocardial infarction. Circulation 92 (1995) 1558–1564.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  59. Peacock, W.F. The B-type natriuretic peptide assay: A rapid test for heart failure. Cleve. Clin. J. Med. 69 (2002) 243–251.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  60. Qi, W., Mathisen, P., Kjekshus, J., Simonsen, S., Bjornerheim, R., Endresen, K. and Hall, C. Natriuretic peptides in patients aortic stenosis. Am. Heart J. 142 (2001) 725–732.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  61. Nagaya, N., Nishikimi, T., Uematsu, M., Satoh, T., Kyotani, S., Sakamaki, F., Kakishita, M., Fukushima, K., Okano, Y., Nakanishi, N., Miyatake, K. and Kangawa, K. Plasma brain natriuretic peptide as a prognostic indicator in patients with primary pulmonary hypertension. Circulation 102 (2000) 865–870.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  62. Fagan, K.A., McMurtry, I.F. and Rodman, D.M. Role of endothelin-1 in lung disease. Respir. Res. 2 (2001) 90–101.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  63. Teder, P. and Noble, P.W. A cytokine reborn? Endothelin-1 in pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 23 (2000) 19–26.

    Google Scholar 

  64. Thomson, A.B., Keelan, M. and Thiesen, A. Small bowel review: normal physiology part 2. Dig. Dis. Sci. 46 (2001) 2588–2607.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  65. Zuccarello, M. Endothelin: the “prime suspect” in cerebral vasospasm. Acta Neurochir. Suppl. 77 (2001) 61–65.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  66. Saito, Y., Nakao, K., Nishimura, K., Sugawara, A., Okumura, K., Obata, K., Sonoda, R., Ban, T., Yasue, H. and Amura, H. Clinical application of atrial natriuretic polypeptide in patients with congestive heart failure: beneficial effects on left ventricular function. Circulation 76 (1987) 115–124.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  67. Bonow, R.O. New insights into the cardiac natriuretic peptides. Circulation 93 (1996) 1946–1950.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  68. Tsutamoto, T., Wada, A., Maeda, K., Hisanaga, T., Mabuchi, N., Hayashi, M., Ohnishi, M., Sawaki, M., Fujii, M., Horie, H., Sugimoto, Y. and Kinoshita, M. Plasma brain natriuretic peptide level as a biochemical marker of morbidity and mortality in patients with asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic left ventricular dysfunction. Eur. Heart J. 20 (1999) 1799–1807.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  69. Maisel, A.S., Krishnaswamy, P., Nowak, R.M., McCord, J., Hollander, J.E., Duc, P., Omland, T., Storrow, A.B., Abraham, W.T., Wu, A.H., Clopton, P., Steg, P.G., Westheim, A., Knudsen, C.W., Perez, A., Kazanegra, R., Herrmann, H.C., McCullough, P.A. and the Breathing Not Properly Multinational Study Investigators. Rapid measurement of B-type natriuretic peptide in the emergency diagnosis of heart failure. N. Engl. J. Med. 347 (2002) 161–167.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  70. Cosin Aguilar, J., Rodriguez Padial, L., Zamorano Gomez, J.L., Aristegui Urrestarazu, R., Armada Pelaez, B., Hernandiz Martinez, A., Aguilar Llopis, A. and Masramon Morell, X. Coronary risk differences in hypertensive patients of different autonomous communities. CORONARY study. Rev. Clin. Esp. 204 (2004) 614–625.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  71. McDonagh, T.A., Robb, S.D., Murdoch, D.R., Morton, J.J., Ford, I., Morrison, C.E., Tunstall-Pedoe, H., McMurray, J.J. and Dargie, H.J. Biochemical detection of left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Lancet 351 (1998) 9–13.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  72. Dao, Q., Krishnaswamy, P., Kazanegra, R., Harrison, A., Amirnovin, R., Lenert, L., Clopton, P., Alberto, J., Hlavin, P. and Maisel, A.S. Utility of Btype natriuretic peptide (BNP) in the diagnosis of CHF in an urgent care setting. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 37 (2001) 379–385.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  73. Cocco, G. and Chu, D. Weight reduction decreases NT-proBNP levels in obsese coronary patients with chronic diastolic heart failure. Arch. Med. Sci. 3 (2007) 112–116.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  74. Cowie, M.R., Struthers, A.D., Wood, D.A., Coats, A.J., Thompson, S.G., Poole-Wilson, P.A. and Sutton, GC. Value of natriuretic peptides in assessment of patients with possible new heart failure in primary care. Lancet 350 (1997) 1349–1352.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  75. Berger, R., Huelsman, M., Strecker, K., Bojic, A., Moser, P., Stanek, B. and Pacher, R. B-type natriuretic peptide predicts sudden death in patients with chronic heart failure. Circulation 105 (2002) 2392–2397.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  76. Tsutamoto, T., Wada, A., Maeda, K., Hisanaga, T., Maeda, Y., Fukai, D., Ohnishi, M., Sugimoto, Y. and Kinoshita, M. Attenuation of compensation of endogenous cardiac natriuretic peptide system in chronic heart failure: prognostic role of plasma brain natriuretic peptide concentration in patients with chronic symptomatic left ventricular dysfunction. Circulation 96 (1997) 509–516.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  77. Collins, S.P., Ronan-Bentle, S. and Storrow, A.B. Diagnostic and prognostic usefulness of natriuretic peptides in Emergency Department patients with dyspnea. Ann. Emerg. Med. 41 (2003) 532–545.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  78. Maisel, A.S., Koon, J., Krishnaswamy, P., Kazenegra, R., Clopton, P., Gardetto, N., Morrisey, R., Garcia, A., Chiu, A. and De Maria, A. Utility of B-natriuretic peptide as a rapid, point-of-care test for screening patients undergoing echocardiography to determine left ventricular dysfunction. Am. Heart J. 141 (2001) 367–374.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  79. Kimura, K., Yamaguchi, Y., Horii, M., Kawata, H., Yamamoto, H., Uemura, S. and Saito, Y. ANP is cleared much faster than BNP in patients with congestive heart failure. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 63 (2007) 699–702.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  80. Cheng, V., Kazanagra, R., Garcia, A., Lenert, L., Krishnaswamy, P., Gardetto, N., Clopton, P. and Maisel, A. A rapid bedside test for B-type natriuretic peptide predicts treatment outcomes in patients admitted for decompensated heart failure: A pilot study. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 37 (2001) 386–391.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  81. Kawakami, R., Saito, Y., Kishimoto, I., Harada, M., Kuwahara, K., Takahashi, N., Nakagawa, Y., Nakanishi, M., Tanimoto, K., Usami, S., Yasuno, S., Kinoshita, H., Chusho, H., Tamura, N., Ogawa, Y. and Nakao, K. Overexpression of brain natriuretic peptide facilitates neutrophil infiltration and cardiac matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression after acute myocardial infarction. Circulation 110 (2004) 3306–3312.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  82. Greig, D., Castro, P., Ferrada, M., Lim, J., Lopez, C., Braun, S., Cordova, S. and Salazar, M. Brain natriuretic peptide in primary pulmonary hypertension. Rev. Med. Chil. 134 (2006) 299–304.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  83. Piechota, M., Banach, M., Irzmanski, R., Barylski, M., Piechota-Urbanska, M., Kowalski, J. and Pawlicki, sL. Plasma endothelin-1 levels in septic patients. J. Intensive Care Med. 22 (2007) 232–239.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  84. Maeda, K., Tsutamoto, T., Wada, A., Hisanaga, T. and Kinoshita, M. Plasma brain natriuretic peptide as a biochemical marker of high left ventricular end-diastolic pressure in patients with symptomatic left ventricular dysfunction. Am. Heart J. 135 (1998) 823–832.

    Google Scholar 

  85. Emdin, M., Passino, C., Prontera, C., Iervasi, A., Ripoli, A., Masini, S., Zucchelli, G.C. and Clerico, A. Cardiac natriuretic hormones, neuro hormones, thyroid hormones and cytokines in normal subjects and patients with heart failure. Clin. Chem. Lab. Med. 42 (2004) 627–636

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  86. McKinsey, T.A. and Nolson, E.N. Cardiac hypertrophy: sorting out the circuitry. Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. 9 (1999) 267–274.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  87. Piechota, M., Banach, M., Irzmański, R., Misztal, M., Rysz, J., Barylski, M., Piechota-Urbańska, M., Kowalski, J. and Pawlicki, L. N-terminal brain natriuretic propeptide levels correlate with procalcitonin and C-reactive protein levels in septic patients. Cell. Mol. Biol. Lett. 12 (2007) 162–175.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  88. Gardner, R.S., Ozalp, F., Murday, A.J. Robb, S.D. and McDonagh, T.A. N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide: the new gold standard in predicting mortality in patients with advanced heart failure. Eur. Heart J. 24 (2003) 1735–1743.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  89. Hodges, M., Bailey, J.J. and Church, T.R. B-type natriuretic peptide predicts sudden death in patients with chronic heart failure. Circulation 107 (2003) e13.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  90. Hammerer-Lercher, A., Ludwig, W., Falkensammer, G., Muller, S., Neubauer, E., Puschendorf, B., Pachinger, O. and Mair, J. Natriuretic peptides as markers of mild forms of left ventricular dysfunction: effects of assays on diagnostic performance of markers. Clin. Chem. 50 (2004) 1174–1183.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  91. Clerico, A. and Emdin, M. Diagnostic accuracy and prognostic relevance of the measurement of cardiac natriuretic peptides: a review. Clin. Chem. 50 (2004) 33–50.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  92. Remme, W.J. and Swedberg, K. Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of chronic heart failure. Eur. Heart J. 22 (2001) 1527–1560.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  93. Jourdain, P., Funck, F. and Bellorini, M. Brain natriuretic peptide and heart failure, from bench to bedside. Ann. Cardiol. Angeiol. (Paris) 53 (2004) 193–199.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  94. Anand, I.S., Fisher, L.D., Chiang, Y.T. Latini, R., Masson, S., Maggioni, A.P., Glazer, R.D., Tognoni, G., Cohn, J.N. and Val-HeFT Investigators. Changes in brain natriuretic peptide and norepinephrine over time and mortality and morbidity in Val-HeFT. Circulation 107 (2003) 1278–1283.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  95. Troughton, R.W., Frampton, C.M., Yandle, T.G. Espiner, E.A., Nicholls, M.G. and Richards, A.M. Treatment of heart failure guided by plasma aminoterminal brain natriuretic peptide (N-BNP) concentrations. Lancet 355 (2000) 1126–1130.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  96. Brunner-La Roca, H.P., Kaye, D.M., Woods, R.L. Hastings, J. and Esler, M.D. Effects of intravenous brain natriuretic peptide on regional sympathetic activity in patients with chronic heart failure as compared to control subjects. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 37 (2001) 1221–1227.

    Google Scholar 

  97. Abraham, W.T., Lowes, B.D., Ferguson, D.A., Odom, J., Kim, J.K., Robertson, A.D., Bristow, M.R. and Schrier, RW. Systemic hemodynamic, neurohormonal, and renal effects of a steady-state infusion of human brain natriuretic peptide in patients with advanced hemodynamically decompensated heart failure. J. Card. Fail. 4 (1998) 37–44.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  98. Tepper, D. Frontiers in congestive heart failure: Utility of B-type natriuretic peptide in the diagnosis of congestive heart failure in an urgent care setting. Congest. Heart Fail. 7 (2001) 330.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  99. Banach, M., Goch, A., Misztal, M., Rysz, J., Barylski, M., Jaszewski, R. and Goch, J.H.. Low output syndrome following aortic valve replacement. Predictors and prognosis. Arch. Med. Sci. 3 (2007) 117–122.

    Google Scholar 

  100. Banach, M., Drożdż, J., Okoński, P. and Rysz, J. Immunological aspects of the statins’ function in patients with heart failure. A raport from the Annual Conference of ESC — Heart Failure 2005. Cell. Mol. Immunol. 2 (2005) 433–437.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  101. Irzmański, R., Piechota, M., Barylski, M., Banach, M., Kowalski, J., Serwa-Stępień, E., Drożdż, J. and Pawlicki, L. NT-proBNP in patients after acute coronary syndrome with ST segment elevation subjected to early posthospitalization cardiologic rehabilitation. Arch. Med. Sci. 2 (2006) 262–267.

    Google Scholar 

  102. Sabatine, M.S., Morrow, D.A., de Lemos, J.A., Omland, T., Desai, M.Y., Tanasijevic, M., Hall, C., McCabe, C.H. and Braunwald, E. Acute changes in circulating natriuretic peptide levels in relation to myocardial ischemia. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 44 (2004) 1988–1995.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  103. James, S.K., Lindahl, B., Siegbahn, A., Stridsberg, M., Venge, P., Armstrong, P., Barnathan, E.S., Califf, R., Topol, E.J., Simoons, M.L. and Wallentin, L. N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide and other risk markers for the separate prediction of mortality and subsequent myocardial infarction in patients with unstable coronary artery disease: a Global Utilization of Strategies To Open occluded arteries (GUSTO)-IV substudy. Circulation 108 (2003) 275–281.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  104. de Lemos, J.A., Morrow, D.A., Bentley, J.H., Omland, T., Sabatine, M.S., McCabe, C.H., Hall, C., Cannon, C.P. and Braunwald, E. The prognostic value of B-type natriuretic peptide in patients with acute coronary syndromes. N. Engl. J. Med. 345 (2001) 1014–1021.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  105. Bassan, R., Potsch, A., Maisel, A., Tura, B., Villacorta, H., Nogueira, M.V., Campos, A., Gamarski, R., Masetto, A.C. and Moutinho, M.A. B-type natriuretic peptide: a novel early blood marker of acute myocardial infarction in patients with chest pain and no ST-segment elevation. Eur. Heart J. 26 (2005) 234–240.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  106. Jarai, R., Iordanova, N., Jarai, R., Raffetseder, A., Woloszczuk, W., Gyöngyösi, M., Geyer, G., Wojta, J. and Huber K. Risk assessment in patients with unstable angina/non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction and normal N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels by N-terminal proatrial natriuretic peptide. Eur. Heart J. 26 (2005) 250–256.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  107. Skrzypiec, M. and Spring, A. Plasma levels of atrial (ANP) and brain (BNP) natriuretic peptides in patients with unstable angina pectoris. Mag. Lek. Rodz. 12 (2004) (http://www.medicus.com.pl/lr/lr_arch_2004-12.html)

  108. Schnabel, R., Rupprecht, H.J., Lackner, K.J., Lubos, E., Bickel, C., Meyer, J., Münzel, T., Cambien, F., Tiret, L. and Blankenberg, S.; AtheroGene Investigators. Analysis of N-terminal-pro-brain natriuretic peptide and C-reactive protein for risk stratification in stable and unstable coronary artery disease: results from the AtheroGene study. Eur. Heart J. 26 (2005) 241–249.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  109. Kowalski, J., Banach, M., Barylski, M., Grycewicz, J., Irzmanski, R. and Pawlicki, L. Neutrophil superoxide anion generation during atorvastatin and fluvastatin therapy used in coronary heart disease primary prevention. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 48 (2006) 143–147.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  110. Heusch, P., Skyschally, A., Leineweber, K., Haude, M., Erbel, R. and Heusch, G. The interaction of coronary microembolization and ischemic preconditioning: A third window of cardioprotection through TNF-alpha. Arch. Med. Sci. 3 (2007) 83–92.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  111. Piechota, M., Irzmański, R., Banach, M., Kowalski, J. and Pawlicki, L. Impedance cardiography in haemodynamic monitoring of septic patients: a prospective study. Arch. Med. Sci. 3 (2007) 145–151.

    Google Scholar 

  112. Schnabel, R., Lubos, E., Rupprecht, H.J., Espinola-Klein, C., Bickel, C., Lackner, K.J., Cambien, F., Tiret, L., Munzel, T. and Blankenberg, S. B-type natriuretic peptide and the risk of cardiovascular events and death in patients with stable angina. results from the AtheroGene Study. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 47 (2006) 552–558.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  113. Omland, T., Persson, A., Ng, L., O’Brien, R., Karlsson, T., Herlitz, J., Hartford, M. and Caidahl, K. N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and long-term mortality in acute coronary syndromes. Circulation 106 (2002) 2913–2918.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  114. Schaller, B.J. The role of endothelin in stroke: Experimental data and underlying pathophysiology. Arch. Med. Sci. 2 (2006) 146–158.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  115. Pidgeon, G.B., Richards, A.M. and Nichols, M.G. Differing metabolism and bioactivity of atrial and brain natriuretic peptide in essential hypertension. Hypertension 27 (1996) 906–913.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  116. Gryglewski, R.J. Interactions between endothelial mediators. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 77 (1995) 1–9.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  117. Ferro, C.J. and Webb, D.J. Endothelial dysfunction and hypertension. Drugs 53 (Suppl. 1) 30–41.

  118. Castillo J.R., Zagler, A., Carrillo-Jimenez, R. and Hennekens, C.H. Brain natriuretic peptide: a potential marker for mortality in septic shock. Int. J. Infect. Dis. 8 (2004) 271–274.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  119. Charpentier, J., Luyt, C.E., Fulla, Y., Vinsonneau, C., Cariou, A., Grabar, S., Dhainaut, J.F., Mira, J.P. and Chiche, J.D. Brain natriuretic peptide: A marker of myocardial dysfunction and prognosis during severe sepsis. Crit. Care Med. 32 (2004) 660–665.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  120. Witthaut, R. Science review: natriuretic peptides in critical illness. Crit. Care 8 (2004) 342–349.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  121. Chua, G. and Kang-Hoe, L. Marked elevations in N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide levels in septic shock. Crit. Care 8 (2004) 248–250.

    Google Scholar 

  122. Kato, N., Sugiyama, T., Morita, H., Nabika, T., Kurihara, H., Yamori, Y. and Yazaki, Y. Genetic analysis of the atrial natriuretic peptide gene in essential hypertension. Clin. Sci. (London) 98 (2000) 251–258.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  123. Rubattu, S., Giliberti, R., Ganten, U. and Volpe, M. A differential brain atrial natriuretic peptide expression co-segregates with occurrence of early stroke in the stroke prone phenotype of spontaneously hypertensive rat. J. Hypertens. 17 (1999) 1849–1852.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  124. Gruchala, M, Ciecwierz, D, Wasag, B, Targonski, R., Dubaniewicz, W., Nowak, A., Sobiczewski, W., Ochman, K., Romanowski, P., Limon, J. and Rynkiewicz, A. Association of the ScaI atrial natriuretic peptide gene polymorphism with nonfatal myocardial infarction and extent of coronary artery disease. Am. Heart J. 145 (2003) 125–131.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  125. Nakayama, T., Soma, M., Saito, S., Honye, J., Sato, M., Aoi, N., Kosuge, K., Haketa, A., Kanmatsuse, K. and Kokubun, S. Missense mutation of exon 3 in the type A human natriuretic peptide receptor gene is associated with myocardial infarction. Med. Sci. Monit. 9 (2003) CR505–CR510.

    Google Scholar 

  126. Tiret, L., Mallet, C., Poirier, O., Nicaud, V., Millaire, A., Bouhour, J.B., Roizes, G., Desnos, M., Dorent, R., Schwartz, K., Cambien, F. and Komajda, M. Lack of association between polymorphisms of eight candidate genes and idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: the CARDIGENE study. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 35 (2000) 29–35.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  127. Ono, K., Mannami, T., Baba, S., Yasui, N., Ogihara, T. and Iwai, N. A single-nucleotide polymorphism in C-type natriuretic peptide gene may be associated with hypertension. Hypertens. Res. 25 (2002) 727–730.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  128. Irzmański, R., Piechota, M., Barylski, M., Banach, M., Gławęda, B., Kowalski, J., Cierniewski, C., Kośmider, M. and Pawlicki, L. Dynamics of changes of the BNP concentration in patients with stable angina pectoris qualified for PTCA. Dependence on the selected morphological and haemodynamic parameters. Arch. Med. Sci. 2 (2006) 15–19.

    Google Scholar 

  129. Topol, E.J. Nesiritide — not verified. N. Engl. J. Med. 353 (2005) 113–116.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  130. Sackner-Bernstein, J.D., Skopicki, H.A. and Aaronson, K.D. Risk of worsening renal function with nesiritide in patients with acutely decompensated heart failure. Circulation 111 (2005) 1487–1491.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  131. Sackner-Bernstein, J.D., Kowalski, M., Fox, M. and Aaronson, K. Short-term risk of death after treatment with nesiritide for decompensated heart failure: A pooled analysis of randomized controlled trials. JAMA 293 (2005) 1900–1905.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  132. Meyer, M., Pfarr, E., Schirmer, G., Uberbacher, H.J., Schope, K., Bohm, E., Fluge, T., Mentz, P., Scigalla, P. and Forssmann, W.G. Therapeutic use of the natriuretic peptide ularitide in acute renal failure. Ren. Fail. 21 (1999) 85–100.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Maciej Banach.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Piechota, M., Banach, M., Jacoń, A. et al. Natriuretic peptides in cardiovascular diseases. Cell Mol Biol Lett 13, 155–181 (2008). https://doi.org/10.2478/s11658-007-0046-6

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/s11658-007-0046-6

Key words

  • Atrial natriuretic peptide
  • Brain natriuretic peptide
  • C-type natriuretic peptide
  • Dendroaspis natriuretic peptide
  • Urodilatin
  • Endothelin-1