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Regulation of bacterial protease activity

Abstract

Proteases, also referred to as peptidases, are the enzymes that catalyse the hydrolysis of peptide bonds in polipeptides. A variety of biological functions and processes depend on their activity. Regardless of the organism’s complexity, peptidases are essential at every stage of life of every individual cell, since all protein molecules produced must be proteolytically processed and eventually recycled. Protease inhibitors play a crucial role in the required strict and multilevel control of the activity of proteases involved in processes conditioning both the physiological and pathophysiological functioning of an organism, as well as in host-pathogen interactions. This review describes the regulation of activity of bacterial proteases produced by dangerous human pathogens, focusing on the Staphylococcus genus.

Abbreviations

α2M:

alpha2-macroglobulin

aa:

amino acid

agr :

accesory gene regulator

AprA:

alkaline protease from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

aur :

aureolysin gene

Clp:

bacterial proteolytic system analogous to eukaryotic proteasome

ClpP:

proteolytic core of the Clp

DegP:

conserved heat shock protein

LasB:

elastase from P. aeruginosa

RBS:

ribosome binding site

sar :

staphylococcal accessory regulator

scp :

staphylococcal cysteine protease operon

SpeB:

streptopain, cysteine protease form Streptococcus pyogenes

Spi:

specific inhibitor of SpeB

spl :

serine protease-like operon

ssp :

staphylococcal serine protease operon

VVP:

Vibro vulnificus protease

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Władyka, B., Pustelny, K. Regulation of bacterial protease activity. Cell Mol Biol Lett 13, 212–229 (2008). https://doi.org/10.2478/s11658-007-0048-4

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Keywords

  • Protease
  • Protease inhibitor
  • Zymogen
  • Operon
  • Staphylococcus