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Oral cyclosporine A - the current picture of its liposomal and other delivery systems

Abstract

The discovery of cyclosporine A was a milestone in organ transplantation and the treatment of autoimmune diseases. However, developing an efficient oral delivery system for this drug is complicated by its poor biopharmaceutical characteristics (low solubility and permeability) and the need to carefully monitor its levels in the blood. Current research is exploring various approaches, including those based on emulsions, microspheres, nanoparticles, and liposomes. Although progress has been made, none of the formulations is flawless. This review is a brief description of the main pharmaceutical systems and devices that have been described for the oral delivery of cyclosporine A in the context of the physicochemical properties of the drug and the character of its interactions with lipid membranes.

Abbreviations

CsA:

cyclosporine A

HIV:

human immunodeficiency virus

IL:

interleukin

NF-AT:

nuclear factor of activated T cells

P-gp:

P glycoprotein

PCL:

polycaprolactone

PEG:

polyethylene glycol

PLA:

polylactic acid

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Czogalla, A. Oral cyclosporine A - the current picture of its liposomal and other delivery systems. Cell Mol Biol Lett 14, 139–152 (2009). https://doi.org/10.2478/s11658-008-0041-6

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Key words

  • Cyclosporine A
  • Physicochemical properties
  • Oral drug delivery
  • Liposomes
  • Nanoparticles