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Differential redox potential profiles during adipogenesis and osteogenesis

Abstract

Development is an orderly process that requires the timely activation and/or deactivation of specific regulatory elements that control cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. While many studies have defined factors that control developmental signaling, the role of intracellular reduction/oxidation (redox) status as a means to control differentiation has not been fully studied. Redox states of intracellular couples may play a very important role in regulating redox-sensitive elements that are involved in differentiation signaling into specific phenotypes. In human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), which are capable of differentiating into many different types of phenotypes, including osteoblasts and adipocytes, glutathione (GSH), cysteine (Cys) and thioredoxin-1 (Trx1) redox potentials were measured during adipogenesis and osteogenesis. GSH redox potentials (Eh) during both osteogenesis and adipogenesis became increasingly oxidized as differentiation ensued, but the rate at which this oxidation occurred was unique for each process. During adipogenesis, Cys Eh became oxidized as adipogenesis progressed but during osteogenesis, it became reduced. Interestingly, intracellular Trx1 concentrations appeared to increase in both adipogenesis and osteogenesis, but the Eh was unchanged when compared to undifferentiated hMSCs. These data show that hMSC differentiation into either adipocytes of osteoblasts corresponds to a unique redox state profile, suggesting that differentiation into specific phenotypes are likely regulated by redox states that are permissive to a specific developmental process.

Abbreviations

αMEM:

alpha-modified Eagles medium

BSP:

bone sailoprotein

Cys:

cysteine

CySS:

cystine

Eo :

midpoint potential

Eh :

redox potential

FAS:

fatty acid synthase

GSH:

glutathione

GSSG:

lutathione disfulfide

hMSC:

human mesenchymal stem cells

mV:

millivolt

NF-κB:

nuclear factor kappa B

OS:

osteocalcin

Pr-SCys:

cysteinylated protein thiol

Pr-SH:

reduced protein thiol

ROS:

reactive oxygen species

Pr-SOH:

sulfenic acid

PR-SSG:

glutathionylated protein thiol

Pr-SSR:

oxidized protein thiol

Trx1:

thioredoxin-1

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Correspondence to Jason M. Hansen.

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Imhoff, B.R., Hansen, J.M. Differential redox potential profiles during adipogenesis and osteogenesis. Cell Mol Biol Lett 16, 149–161 (2011). https://doi.org/10.2478/s11658-010-0042-0

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/s11658-010-0042-0

Key words

  • Mesenchymal stem cells
  • Adipogenesis
  • Osteogenesis
  • Glutathione
  • Cysteine
  • Thioredoxin-1
  • Redox status