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Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters

Open Access

Perinatal sources of mesenchymal stem cells: Wharton’s jelly, amnion and chorion

Cellular & Molecular Biology LettersAn International Journal201116:19

Received: 25 April 2011

Accepted: 11 July 2011

Published: 18 July 2011


Recently, stem cell biology has become an interesting topic, especially in the context of treating diseases and injuries using transplantation therapy. Several varieties of human stem cells have been isolated and identified in vivo and in vitro. Ideally, stem cells for regenerative medical application should be found in abundant quantities, harvestable in a minimally invasive procedure, then safely and effectively transplanted to either an autologous or allogenic host. The two main groups of stem cells, embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells, have been expanded to include perinatal stem cells. Mesenchymal stem cells from perinatal tissue may be particularly useful in the clinic for autologous transplantation for fetuses and newborns, and after banking in later stages of life, as well as for in utero transplantation in case of genetic disorders.

This review highlights the characteristics and therapeutic potential of three human mesenchymal stem cell types obtained from perinatal sources: Wharton’s jelly, the amnion, and the chorion.

Key words

Perinatal stem cellsWharton’s jellyAmnionChorionPlacentaMesenchymal stem/stromal cellsRegenerative medicine