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Perinatal sources of mesenchymal stem cells: Wharton’s jelly, amnion and chorion

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Abstract

Recently, stem cell biology has become an interesting topic, especially in the context of treating diseases and injuries using transplantation therapy. Several varieties of human stem cells have been isolated and identified in vivo and in vitro. Ideally, stem cells for regenerative medical application should be found in abundant quantities, harvestable in a minimally invasive procedure, then safely and effectively transplanted to either an autologous or allogenic host. The two main groups of stem cells, embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells, have been expanded to include perinatal stem cells. Mesenchymal stem cells from perinatal tissue may be particularly useful in the clinic for autologous transplantation for fetuses and newborns, and after banking in later stages of life, as well as for in utero transplantation in case of genetic disorders.

This review highlights the characteristics and therapeutic potential of three human mesenchymal stem cell types obtained from perinatal sources: Wharton’s jelly, the amnion, and the chorion.

Abbreviations

AFCs:

amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stromal cells

AM-MSCs:

amniotic membrane mesenchymal stromal cells

BM-MSCs:

bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

C-MSCs:

chorionic mesenchymal stem/stromal cells

EGF:

epidermal growth factor

ESCs:

embryonic stem cells

FGF:

fibroblast growth factor

HLA:

human leukocyte antigen

HSCs:

hematopoietic stem cells

IGF:

insulin growth factor

Il:

interleukin

MHC:

major histocompatibility complex

MSCs:

mesenchymal stem cells

PMSCs:

placenta mesenchymal stem/stromal cells

TGF-β:

transforming growth factor-β

UC-MSCs:

umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal/stem cells

VEGF:

vascular endothelial growth factor

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Correspondence to Malgorzata Witkowska-Zimny.

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Key words

  • Perinatal stem cells
  • Wharton’s jelly
  • Amnion
  • Chorion
  • Placenta
  • Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells
  • Regenerative medicine