- Research article
Effects of lead chloride on human erythrocyte membranes and on kinetic anion sulphate and glutathione concentrations
Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters volume 17, pages 586–597 (2012)
Our study concerns the effects of exposure to lead chloride on the morphology, K+ efflux, SO4 − influx and GSH levels of the human erythrocyte. Blood was collected in heparinized tubes and washed three times. The cells were suspended at 3% hematocrit and incubated for 1 h at 25°C in a medium containing increasing concentrations of lead chloride (0, 0.3, 0.5 and 1 μM). After incubation, the suspensions were centrifuged and the erythrocyte pellets were divided into three aliquots for testing. The results show: an increase in the permeability of erythrocytes treated with lead chloride with consequent damage and cellular death, especially in the presence of high concentrations; an increase in potassium ion efflux; alterations in the morphology and membrane structure of the red blood cells; and a decrease in sulphate uptake, due either to the oxidative effect of this compound on the band 3 protein, which loses its biological valence as a carrier of sulphate ions, or to a decrease in the ATP erythrocyte concentration. In conclusion, the exposure of erythrocytes to Pb2+ ions leads to a reduction in the average lifetime of the erythrocytes and the subsequent development of anemia. These data are discussed in terms of the possible effect of lead on the reduction-oxidation systems of the cell. Oxidant agents, such as lead, are known to cross-link integral membrane proteins, leading to K/Cl-cotransport. The increased K+ efflux affects the altered redox state.
- BaCl2 :
- 2,3 BPG:
- Ca2+ :
- Cl− :
- HCO3 − :
- K+ :
- Na2SO4 :
- Pb2+ :
- PbCl2 :
red blood cell
scanning electron microscopy
- SO4 2- :
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Cite this article
Gugliotta, T., De Luca, G., Romano, P. et al. Effects of lead chloride on human erythrocyte membranes and on kinetic anion sulphate and glutathione concentrations. Cell Mol Biol Lett 17, 586–597 (2012). https://doi.org/10.2478/s11658-012-0027-2
- Anion transport
- Band 3 protein
- Erythrocyte membrane
- Lead chloride
- Scanning electron microscopy
- Adenosine 5′ triphosphate
- Sulphate influx