Open Access

Subcellular localization of full-length human myeloid leukemia factor 1 (MLF1) is independent of 14-3-3 proteins

Cellular & Molecular Biology LettersAn International Journal201218:44

Received: 7 September 2012

Accepted: 17 December 2012

Published: 27 December 2012


Myeloid leukemia factor 1 (MLF1) is associated with the development of leukemic diseases such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). However, information on the physiological function of MLF1 is limited and mostly derived from studies identifying MLF1 interaction partners like CSN3, MLF1IP, MADM, Manp and the 14-3-3 proteins. The 14-3-3-binding site surrounding S34 is one of the only known functional features of the MLF1 sequence, along with one nuclear export sequence (NES) and two nuclear localization sequences (NLS). It was recently shown that the subcellular localization of mouse MLF1 is dependent on 14-3-3 proteins. Based on these findings, we investigated whether the subcellular localization of human MLF1 was also directly 14-3-3-dependent. Live cell imaging with GFP-fused human MLF1 was used to study the effects of mutations and deletions on its subcellular localization. Surprisingly, we found that the subcellular localization of full-length human MLF1 is 14-3-3-independent, and is probably regulated by other as-yet-unknown proteins.

Key words

MLF1 14-3-3 Binding site Protein-protein interactions Subcellular localization Acute myeloid leukemia Myelodysplastic syndrome Site-directed mutagenesis Confocal microscopy Live cell imaging