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The role of advanced glycation end products in various types of neurodegenerative disease: a therapeutic approach

Abstract

Protein glycation is initiated by a nucleophilic addition reaction between the free amino group from a protein, lipid or nucleic acid and the carbonyl group of a reducing sugar. This reaction forms a reversible Schiff base, which rearranges over a period of days to produce ketoamine or Amadori products. The Amadori products undergo dehydration and rearrangements and develop a cross-link between adjacent proteins, giving rise to protein aggregation or advanced glycation end products (AGEs). A number of studies have shown that glycation induces the formation of the β-sheet structure in β-amyloid protein, α-synuclein, transthyretin (TTR), copper-zinc superoxide dismutase 1 (Cu, Zn-SOD-1), and prion protein. Aggregation of the β-sheet structure in each case creates fibrillar structures, respectively causing Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, familial amyloid polyneuropathy, and prion disease. It has been suggested that oligomeric species of glycated α-synuclein and prion are more toxic than fibrils. This review focuses on the pathway of AGE formation, the synthesis of different types of AGE, and the molecular mechanisms by which glycation causes various types of neurodegenerative disease. It discusses several new therapeutic approaches that have been applied to treat these devastating disorders, including the use of various synthetic and naturally occurring inhibitors. Modulation of the AGE-RAGE axis is now considered promising in the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. Additionally, the review covers several defense enzymes and proteins in the human body that are important anti-glycating systems acting to prevent the development of neurodegenerative diseases.

Abbreviations

Aβ:

amyloid beta

AD:

Alzheimer’s disease

AFGPs:

alkylformyl glycosylpyrroles

AG:

aminoguanidne

AGEs:

advanced glycation end products

AKR:

aldo-keto-reductase

ALI:

arginine lysine imidazole

ALS:

amylolateral sclerosis

ALT:

711-alagebrium chloride

APP:

amyloid precursor protein

BSE:

bovine spongiform encelopathy

CD-36:

cluster of differentiation 36

CFD:

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

CML:

Nɛ-carboxymethyllysine

Cu, Zn-SOD-1:

copper-zinc superoxide dismutase 1

DETAPAC:

diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid

3DG:

3-deoxyglucosone

EGCG:

(−)-epigallocatechin gallate

FAP:

familial amyloid polyneuropathy

FN3K:

fructosamine-3-kinase

GAPDH:

glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase

GOLD:

glyoxal lysine dimer

GSH:

glutathione

GSK-3:

glycogen synthase kinase-3

IL-1β:

interleukin-1β

IFA:

isoferulic acid

LBs:

Lewy bodies

LRRK-2:

leucine-rich repeat kinase 2

MG:

methylglyoxal

MOLD:

methylglyoxal lysine dimer

MSR type II:

macrophage scavenger receptor types II

NADPH:

nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate

NF-κβ:

nuclear factor-κB

NFTs:

neurofibrillary tangles

OM:

origanum majorana

OST-48:

oligosaccharyltransferase-48

PD:

Parkinson’s disease

PM:

pyridoxamine

PrPC:

cellular prion protein

PTB:

phenacylthiazolium bromide

RAGE:

receptor of advanced glycation end products

ROS:

reactive oxygen species

SNCA:

synuclein alpha

sRAGE:

soluble receptor of advanced glycation end products

TTR:

transthyretin

TK:

transketolase

TNFα:

tumor necrosis factor-α

TPP:

thiamine pyrophosphate

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Salahuddin, P., Rabbani, G. & Khan, R.H. The role of advanced glycation end products in various types of neurodegenerative disease: a therapeutic approach. Cell Mol Biol Lett 19, 407–437 (2014). https://doi.org/10.2478/s11658-014-0205-5

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Keywords

  • Aggregation
  • Advanced glycation end products
  • Glycation in Alzheimer’s disease
  • Glycation in Parkinson’s disease
  • Glycation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
  • Glycation in familial amyloid polyneuropathy
  • Glycation in prion diseases
  • Glyoxylases
  • AGE inhibitors