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Regulation of lncRNA expression

Abstract

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are series of transcripts with important biological functions. Various diseases have been associated with aberrant expression of lncRNAs and the related dysregulation of mRNAs. In this review, we highlight the mechanisms of dynamic lncRNA expression. The chromatin state contributes to the low and specific expression of lncRNAs. The transcription of non-coding RNA genes is regulated by many core transcription factors applied to protein-coding genes. However, specific DNA sequences may allow their unsynchronized transcription with their location-associated mRNAs. Additionally, there are multiple mechanisms involved in the post-transcriptional regulation of lncRNAs. Among these, microRNAs might have indispensible regulatory effects on lncRNAs, based on recent discoveries.

Abbreviations

ADAR:

adenosine deaminase

Ago2:

argonaute 2

AP-1:

activating protein-1

CDR1:

cerebellar degeneration-related protein 1

DNMT:

DNA methyltransferase

ESC:

embryonic stem cell

HBV:

hepatitis B virus

HCC:

hepatocellular carcinoma

HCG:

high CpG

HDAC3:

histone deacetylase 3

hnRNP I:

ribonucleoprotein I

LCG:

low CpG

lincRNAs:

large intergenic non-coding RNAs

lncRNAs:

long non-coding RNAs

MEG3:

maternally expressed gene 3

MEN β:

multiple endocrine neoplasia β

miRNAs:

microRNAs

pancRNAs:

promoter-associated non-coding RNAs

PRC2:

polycomb repressive complex2

SRF:

serum response factor

TFBS:

transcription factor binding sites

TSS:

transcription start site

UCA1:

urothelial carcinoma-associated 1

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Wu, Z., Liu, X., Liu, L. et al. Regulation of lncRNA expression. Cell Mol Biol Lett 19, 561–575 (2014). https://doi.org/10.2478/s11658-014-0212-6

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/s11658-014-0212-6

Keywords

  • lncRNAs
  • Mechanisms
  • Dynamic expression
  • Chromatin state
  • Transcription factor
  • Specific DNA sequence
  • microRNA
  • Post-transcriptional regulation