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Table 2 Key signaling pathways and potential mediators underlying burn-induced HO

From: Burn-induced heterotopic ossification from incidence to therapy: key signaling pathways underlying ectopic bone formation

Signaling pathway Potential mediator References
Vessel- and endothelial cell-based pathways HIF-1, VEGF, ASCs/MSCs
BMP2, BMP4, TGF-β, EMT
[43,44,45,46,47,48,49,50]
Immune cell-based pathways TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, neutrophils and monocytes
CXCL1, CXCL2, MCP-1, G-CSF, GM-CSF and TGF-β, macrophages
T cells and B cells
[51,52,53,54]
Muscle satellite cell-based pathways NF-κB, neutrophils, Rho signaling [55,56,57,58,59]
Other factors (age, gender etc.) Smad, NF-κB, IGF-1, testosterone [60,61,62]