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Table 1 Structure and functions of human sestrins

From: The functions and roles of sestrins in regulating human diseases

Sestrins Transcript variant Crystal structure Regulators Functions References
hSesn1 3 (~ 48,55,68 kDa) Unknown (composed mostly of α-helical regions) p53, FoXO Inhibition of ROS
Nutrition sensing (amino acid, glucose, leucine)
Inhibition of mTORC1
Induction of autophagy
[48, 104, 163, 194]
hSesn2 1 (~ 60 kDa) Two-fold pseudosymmetry with 3 subdomains p53, Nrf2, ATF4, C/EBPβ, JNK/c-Jun, AP-1, HIF1 Inhibition of ROS, DNA damage, and ER stress
Nutrition sensing (amino acid, glucose, leucine)
Inhibition of cell growth and mTORC1
Induction of autophagy
Maintaining homeostasis of glucose, insulin, fatty acid, and triglyceride
[6, 9, 10, 22, 42, 48, 57, 86, 136, 162, 194]
hSesn3 2 (44,53 kDa) Unknown AP-1, FoxO1, FoxO3 Inhibition of ROS
Nutrition sensing (amino acid, glucose, and leucine)
Regulation of mTORC1/mTORC2/PKB
Induction of autophagy
Maintaining homeostasis of glucose, insulin
[22, 39, 194]
  1. Sesn, Sestrin; Nrf2, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2; AP-1, activator protein 1; ATF4, activating transcription factor 4; C/EBPβ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta; JNK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase; HIF1, hypoxia-inducible factor 1; FoxO, forkhead box protein O; ROS, reactive oxygen species; mTORC1, mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1; mTORC2, mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 2; PKB, protein kinase B, also known as Akt; AMPK, AMP-activated protein kinase